Register for the 30th Napa Pain Conference

The City College of New York

Shames Professor of Biomedical Engineering

Marom Bikson, PhD is the Shames Professor of Biomedical Engineering at The City College of New York. He is known for his work on the cellular mechanisms of electrical stimulation and translational medical device design. He has published over 250 articles on medical device technology and brain stimulation. Technologies invented in Dr. Bikson’s lab are in hundreds of medical centers globally.

Dr. Bikson co-invented High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS), the first non-invasive, targeted, and low-intensity neuromodulation technology.  Dr. Bikson consults for medical technology companies and regulatory agencies on the design, validation, and certification of medical instrumentation.  Dr. Bikson is co-founder of Soterix Medical Inc. Prior to becoming faculty at CUNY, Dr. Bikson was a research fellow at the University of Birmingham Medical School, UK and a Research Associate at Sontra Medical LLC, in Cambridge Mass.  Dr. Bikson received a Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, in Cleveland OH, and a B.S. in Biomedical Engineering from Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD.

Dr. Bikson previously co-chaired Neuromodulation The Science (NTS) conference and will support the NTS content at Napa Pain. Dr. Bikson is founder of Neuromodec, a leading free online service created to support the development of neuromodulation through shared resources. The 2023 Napa Pain conference is partnered with Neuromodec.

Dr. Bikson is founder of NEUROMODEC , a free online service created to support the development of neuromodulation through the integration of shared resources, research tools, professional standards, events and inter-institution collaboration.

A Tool for the Mind

Select Publications


Unal, G., Poon, C, FallahRad, M., Thahsin, M. Argyelan, M., Bikson, M. Quasi-static pipeline in electroconvulsive therapy computational modeling. Brain Stimulation. Volume 16, Issue 2, March–April 2023, Pages 607-618. DOI: PDF

Bikson, M. Transcranial direct current stimulation and neurovascular modulation. (2023) European Journal of Neurology (commentary). DOI: 10.1111/ene.15710 PDF

Santana, K., França, E., Sato, J., Silva, A., Queiroz, M., Farias J., Rodrigues D, Souza, I, Ribeiro, V., Caparelli-Dáquer, E., Teixeira, A.L, Charvet, L., Datta, A., Bikson, M., Andrade, S. (2023) Non-invasive brain stimulation for fatigue in post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC). Brain Stimulation. Jan 21;16(1):100-107. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2023.01.1672 PDF

Gaugain, G., Quéguiner, L., Bikson, M,, Sauleau, R., Zhadobov, M, Modolo, J, Nikolayev, D. (2023) Quasi-static approximation error of electric field analysis for transcranial current stimulation. Journal of Neural Engineering. DOI 10.1088/1741-2552/acb14d PDF


Cancel, L.M. Silas, D., Bikson, M., Tarbell, J.M. (2022) Direct current stimulation modulates gene expression in isolated astrocytes with implications for glia-mediated plasticity. Scientific Reports. PDF

Cavendish, B. A., Lima, A., Bertola, L., Charvet, L., Bikson, M., Brunoni, A. R., & Vidal, K. S. (2022). Combination of transcranial direct current stimulation with online cognitive training improves symptoms of Post-acute Sequelae of COVID-19: A case series. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, 0(0). PDF

Stefano, L. H., Favoretto, D. B., Nascimento, D. C., Santos, L. R. A., Bikson, M., Leite, J. P., Pontes-Neto, O. M., Edwards, D. J., & Edwards, T. G. S. (2022). Dataset of middle cerebral artery blood flow stability in response to high-definition transcranial electrical stimulation. Data in Brief, 45, 108603. PDF

Muccio, M., Walton Masters, L., Pilloni, G., He, P., Krupp, L., Datta, A., Bikson, M., Charvet, L., & Ge, Y. (2022). Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes measured with simultaneous tDCS-MRI in healthy adults. Brain Research, 1796, 148097. PDF

Brunoni, A. R., Ekhtiari, H., Antal, A., Auvichayapat, P., Baeken, C., Benseñor, I. M., Bikson, M., Boggio, P., Borroni, B., Brighina, F., Brunelin,  erome, Carvalho, S., Caumo, W., Ciechanski, P., Charvet, L., Clark, V. P., Cohen Kadosh, R., Cotelli, M., Datta, A., … Fregni, F. (2022). Digitalized transcranial electrical stimulation: A consensus statement. Clinical Neurophysiology.

Schertz, M., Karni-Visel, Y., Genizi, J., Manishevitch, H., Lam, M., Akawi, A., Dudai, M., Fenton, A., & Bikson, M. (2022). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in children with ADHD: A randomized, sham-controlled pilot study. Journal of Psychiatric Research. PDF

Zannou, A. L., Khadka, N., & Bikson, M. (2022). Bioheat Model of Spinal Column Heating During High-Density Spinal Cord Stimulation. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. PDF

Badran, B. W., Huffman, S. M., Dancy, M., Austelle, C. W., Bikson, M., Kautz, S. A., & George, M. S. (2022). A pilot randomized controlled trial of supervised, at-home, self-administered transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) to manage long COVID symptoms. Research Square, PDF

Czura, C. J., Bikson, M., Charvet, L., Chen, J. D. Z., Franke, M., Fudim, M., Grigsby, E., Hamner, S., Huston, J. M., Khodaparast, N., Krames, E., Simon, B. J., Staats, P., & Vonck, K. (2022). Neuromodulation Strategies to Reduce Inflammation and Improve Lung Complications in COVID-19 Patients. Frontiers in Neurology, 13. PDF

Moreira, A., Moscaleski, L., Machado, D. G. da S., Bikson, M., Unal, G., Bradley, P. S., Cevada, T., Silva, F. T. G. da, Baptista, A. F., Morya, E., & Okano, A. H. (2022). Transcranial direct current stimulation during a prolonged cognitive task: The effect on cognitive and shooting performances in professional female basketball players. Ergonomics, 0(0), 1–14.

Cardoso, L., Khadka, N., Dmochowski, J. P., Meneses, E., Lee, K., Kim, S., Jin, Y., & Bikson, M. (2022). Computational modeling of posteroanterior lumbar traction by an automated massage bed: Predicting intervertebral disc stresses and deformation. Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, 3. PDF

Dmochowski, J.P., Khadka, N., Cardoso, L., Meneses, E., Lee, K., Kim, S., Jin, Y., Bikson, M. (2022). Computational Modeling of Deep Tissue Heating by an Automatic Thermal Massage Bed: Predicting the Effects on Circulation. Frontiers in Medical Technology.

Pilloni, G., Charvet, L. E., Bikson, M., Palekar, N., & Kim, M.-J. (2022). Potential of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Alzheimer’s Disease: Optimizing Trials Toward Clinical Use. Journal of Clinical Neurology, 18(4), 391–400. PDF

Oliveira, P. C. A. de, Araújo, T. A. B. de, Machado, D. G. da S., Rodrigues, A. C., Bikson, M., Andrade, S. M., Okano, A. H., Simplicio, H., Pegado, R., & Morya, E. (2022). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Parkinson’s Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Neurology, 12. PDF

Stefano, L. H., Favoretto, D. B., Nascimento, D. C., Santos, L. R., Louzada, F., Bikson, M., Leite, J. P., Pontes-Neto, O. M., Edwards, D. J., & Edwards, T. G. (2022). Middle cerebral artery blood flow stability in response to high-definition transcranial electrical stimulation: A randomized sham-controlled clinical trial. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 107345.

Antal A., Luber B., Brem A., Bikson M., Brunoni A. R., Kadosh R. C., Dubljevic V., Fecteau S., Ferreri F., Flöel A., Hallett M., Hamilton R. H., Herrmann C. S., Lavidor M., Loo C., Lustenberger C., Machado S., Miniussi C., Moliadze V., Nitsche M. A., Rossi S., Rossini P. M., Santarnecchi E., Seeck M., Thut G., Turi A., Ugawa Y., Venkatasubramanian G., Wenderoth N., Wexler A., Ziemann U., Paulus W. (2022) Non-invasive brain stimulation and neuroenhancement, Clinical Neurophysiology Practice, 7: 146-165 PDF

Salameh, A., McCabe, J., Skelly, M., Duncan, K. R., Chen, Z., Tatsuoka, C., Bikson, M., Hardin, E. C., Daly, J. J., & Pundik, S. (2022). Stance Phase Gait Training Post Stroke Using Simultaneous Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motor Learning-Based Virtual Reality-Assisted Therapy: Protocol Development and Initial Testing. Brain Sciences, 12(6), 701. PDF

Quintiliano A., Bikson M., Oehmen T., Pegado R., Kirsztajn G. M. (2022). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Pain Management in End-Stage Renal Disease – Report of an Early Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, S0885-3924(22)00743-6.

Andrade, S. M., Silvestre, M. C. de A., França, E. É. T. de, Queiroz, M. H. B. S., Santana, K. de J., Madruga, M. L. L. H., Mendes, C. K. T. T., Oliveira, E. A. de, Bezerra, J. F., Barreto, R. G., Silv,a S. M. A. F. da, Sousa, T. A. de, Sousa, W. C. M. de, Silva, M. P. da, Ribeiro, V. M. C., Lucena, P., Beltrammi, D., Catharino, R. R., Caparelli-Dáquer, E., Hampstead, B. M., Datta A., Teixeira, A. L., Fernandez-Calvo, B., Sato, J. R., Bikson, M. (2022). Efficacy and safety of HD-tDCS and respiratory rehabilitation for critically ill patients with COVID-19 The HD-RECOVERY randomized clinical trial. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, 15(3), 780–788. PDF

DaSilva, A. F., Datta, A., Swami, J., Kim, D. J., Patil, P. G., Bikson, M. (2022). The Concept, Development, and Application of a Home-Based High-Definition tDCS for Bilateral Motor Cortex Modulation in Migraine and Pain. Frontiers in Pain Research, 3. DOI: 10.3389/fpain.2022.798056 PDF

Williams, P. T. J. A., Truong, D. Q., Seifert, A. C., Xu, J., Bikson, M., & Martin, J. H. (2022). Selective augmentation of corticospinal motor drive with trans-spinal direct current stimulation in the cat. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, 15(3), 624–634. PDF

Baker, T. S., Zannou, A. L., Cruz, D., Khadka, N., Kellner, C., Tyc, R., Bikson, M., & Costa, A. (2022). Development and Clinical Validation of a Finite Element Method Model Mapping Focal Intracranial Cooling. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 1–1. PDF

Khadka, N., Bikson, M. (2022) Noninvasive Electrical Brain Stimulation of the Central Nervous System. Handbook of Neuroengineering (pp. 1–33). Springer. PDF

Jeong, H., Song, I.-U., Chung, Y.-A., Park, J.-S., Na, S.-H., Im, J. J., Bikson, M., Lee, W., & Yoo, S.-S. (2022). Short-Term Efficacy of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound to the Hippocampus in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Preliminary Study. Journal of Personalized Medicine, 12(2), 250. PDF

Silva-Filho, E., Pilloni, G., Charvet, L. E., Fregni, F., Brunoni, A. R., Bikson, M. (2022). Factors supporting availability of home-based Neuromodulation using remote supervision in middle-income countries; Brazil experience. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, 15(2), 385–387. PDF

Cho, H., Razza, L. B., Borrione, L., Bikson, M., Charvet, L., Dennis-Tiwary, T. A., Brunoni, A. R., Sudbrack-Oliveira, P. (2022). Transcranial Electrical Stimulation for Psychiatric Disorders in Adults: A Primer. Focus, 20(1), 19-31. PDF


Cohen, S. L., Bikson, M., Badran, B. W., George, M. S. (2021). A visual and narrative timeline of US FDA milestones for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) devices. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, 15(1), 73–75. PDF

Khadka, N., Bikson, M. (2021). Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES). The NeuroTech Primer: A Beginner’s Guide to Everything Neurotechnology, NeuroTechX. 109-125, ISBN: 979-8454254056 PDF

Sharma, M., Farahani, F., Bikson, M., Parra L. C. (2021). Weak DCS causes a relatively strong cumulative boost of synaptic plasticity with spaced learning. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, 15(1), 57–62. PDF

Gebodh, N., Esmaeilpour, Z., Datta, A. & Bikson, M. (2021). Dataset of concurrent EEG, ECG, and behavior with multiple doses of transcranial electrical stimulation. Scientific Data, 8(1), 274. PDF

Truong, D. Q., Khadka, N., Peterchev, A. V. & Bikson, M. (2021). Transcranial electrical stimulation devices. The Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation, Second Edition. Oxford University Press. 2: 2 -55. PDF

Xia, Y., Li, Y., Khalid, W., Bikson, M., & Fu, B. M. (2021). Direct Current Stimulation Disrupts Endothelial Glycocalyx and Tight Junctions of the Blood-Brain Barrier in vitro. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9. PDF

Kreisberg, E., Esmaeilpour, Z., Adair D., Khadka, N., Datta, A., Badran. B. W., Douglas Bremner, J., Bikson, M. (2021). High-resolution computational modeling of the current flow in the outer ear during transcutaneous auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS). Brain Stimulation. 14: 1419 -1430. PDF

Farahani, F., Sharma, M., Parra, L.C., Bikson, M. (2021). Animal Models of tES: Methods, Techniques, and Safety. In: Brunoni A. R., Nitsche M. A., Loo C. K. (eds), Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Springer Cham. PDF

Sharma, M., Farahani, F., Bikson, M., & Parra, L.C. (2021). Animal Studies on the Mechanisms of Low-Intensity Transcranial Electric Stimulation (eds), Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Springer Cham. PDF

Jones, A. P., Goncalves-Garcia, M., Gibson B, Trumbo, M. C. S., Coffman, B. A., Robert B., Gill. H. A., Mullins, T., Hunter, M. A., Robinson, C. S. H., Combs, A., Khadka, N., Bikson, M., Clark, V. P. (2021). Investigating the brain regions involved in tDCS-Enhanced category learning using finite element modeling. Neuroimage: Reports. 1(4): 100048. PDF

Unal, G., Swami, J. K., Canela, C., Cohen, S. L., Khadka, N., FallahRad, M., Short, B., Argyelan, M., Sackeim, H. A., & Bikson, M. (2021). Adaptive current-flow models of ECT: Explaining individual static impedance, dynamic impedance, and brain current density. Brain Stimulation. 14(5):1154-1168. PDF

da Silva Machado, D. G., Bikson, M., Datta, A., Caparelli-Dáquer, E., Unal, G., Baptista, A. F., Cyrino, E. S., Li, L. M., Morya, E., Moreira, A., & Okano, A. H. (2021). Acute effect of high-definition and conventional tDCS on exercise performance and psychophysiological responses in endurance athletes: A randomized controlled trial. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 13911. PDF

Bahr-Hosseini, M., & Bikson, M. (2021). Neurovascular-modulation: A review of primary vascular responses to transcranial electrical stimulation as a mechanism of action. Brain Stimulation, 14(4):837-847. PDF

Moreira, A., Machado, D. G. da S., Bikson, M., Unal, G., Bradley, P. S., Moscaleski, L., Costa, T., Kalil, G. C. S. G., Chao, L. W., Baptista, A. F., Morya, E., & Okano, A. H. (2021). Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Professional Female Soccer Players’ Recovery Following Official Matches. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 128(4), 1504–1529.

Myruski, S., Cho, H., Bikson, M., & Dennis-Tiwary, T. A. (2021). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Augments the Effects of Gamified, Mobile Attention Bias Modification. Front Neuroergonomics PDF

Farmer, A. D., Strzelczyk, A., Finisguerra, A., Gourine, A. V., Gharabaghi, A., Hasan, A., Burger, A. M., Jaramillo, A. M., Mertens, A., Majid, A., Verkuil, B., Badran, B. W., Ventura-Bort, C., Gaul, C., Beste, C., Warren, C. M., Quintana, D. S., Hämmerer, D., Freri, E., Frangos, E., Tobaldini, E., Kaniusas, E., Rosenow, F., Capone, F., Panetsos, F., Ackland, G. L., Kaithwas, G., O’Leary, G. H., Genheimer, H., Jacobs, H. I. L., Van Diest, I., Schoenen, J., Redgrave, J., Fang, J., Deuchars, J., Széles, J. C., Thayer, J. F., More, K., Vonck, K., Steenbergen, L., Vianna, L.C., McTeague, L. M., Ludwig, M., Veldhuizen, M. G., De Couck, M., Casazza, M., Keute, M., Bikson, M., Andreatta, M., D’Agostini, M., Weymar, M., Betts, M., Prigge, M., Kaess, M., Roden, M., Thai, M., Schuster, N. M., Montano, N., Hansen, N., Kroemer, N. B., Rong, P., Fischer, R., Howland, R. H., Sclocco, R., Sellaro, R., Garcia, R. G., Bauer, S., Gancheva, S., Stavrakis, S., Kampusch, S., Deuchars, S. A., Wehner, S., Laborde, S., Usichenko, T., Polak, T., Zaehle, T., Borges, U., Teckentrup, V., Jandackova, V. K., Napadow, V. & Koenig, J. (2021) International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (Version 2020). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14. PDF

De Souza, C. G., Pegado, R., Costa, J. F., Morya, E., Baptista, A., Unal, G., Bikson, M., & Okano, A. H. (2021). Alternate sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reduce chronic pain in women affected by chikungunya. A randomized clinical trial. Brain Stimulation PDF

Moreira, A., Machado, D. G. da S., Moscaleski, L., Bikson, M., Unal, G., Bradley, P. S., Baptista, A. F., Morya, E., Cevada, T., Marques, L., Zanetti, V., & Okano, A. H. (2021). Effect of tDCS on well-being and autonomic function in professional male players after official soccer matches. Physiology & Behavior PDF

Sehatpour, P., Dondé, C., Adair, D., Kreither, J., Lopez-Calderon, J., Avissar, M., Bikson, M., & Javitt, D. C. (2021). Comparison of cortical network effects of high-definition and conventional tDCS during visuomotor processing. Brain Stimulation, 14(1):33-35. PDF


Ghobadi-Azbari, P., Jamil, A., Yavari, F., Esmaeilpour, Z., Malmir, N., Mahdavifar-Khayati, R., Soleimani, G., Cha, Y. H., Shereen, A. D., Nitsche, M. A., Bikson, M., & Ekhtiari, H. (2020). fMRI and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES): A systematic review of parameter space and outcomes. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 107:110149. PDF

Khadka, N. & Bikson, M. (2020). Neurocapillary-modulation. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. PDF

Esmaeilpour, Z., Jackson, M., Kronberg, G., Zhang, T., Esteller, R., Hershey B., & Bikson, M. (2020) Limited sensitivity of hippocampal synaptic function or network oscillations to unmodulated kilohertz electric fields. eNeuro, 368(20). PDF

Baptista, A. F., Baltar, A., Okano, A. H., Moreira, A., Campos, A. C. P., Fernandes, A. M., Brunoni, Badran, B. W., Tanaka, C., Ciampi de Andrade, D., Machado, D. G. da S., Morya, E., Trujillo, E., Swami, J. K., Camprodon, J. A., Monte-Silva, K., Sá, K. N., Nunes, I., Goulardins, J. B., Bikson, M., Sudbrack-Oliveira, P., de Carvalho, P., Duarte-Moreira, R. J., Pagano, R. L., Shinjo, S. K., & Zana, Y. (2020). Applications of Non-invasive Neuromodulation for the Management of Disorders Related to COVID-19. Frontiers in Neurology, 11(573718). PDF

Khadka, N., & Bikson, M. (2020). Role of skin tissue layers and ultra-structure in transcutaneous electrical stimulation including tDCS. Physics in Medicine &Biology, 65(22). PDF

Rossi, S., Antal, A., Bestmann, S., Bikson, M., Brewer, C., Brockmöller, J., Carpenter, L. L., Cincotta, M., Chen, R., Daskalakis, J. D., Di Lazarro, V., Fox, M. D., George, M. S., Gilbert, D., Kimiskidis, V. K., Koch, G., Ilmoniemi, R. J., Lefaucheur, J. P., Leocani, L., Lisanby, S. H., Miniussi, C., Padberg, F., Pascual-Leone, A., Paulus, W., Peterchev, A. V., Quartarone, A., Rotenberg, A., Rothwell, J., Rossini, P. M., Santarnecchi, E., Shafi, M. M., Siebner, H. R., Ugawa, Y., Wassermann, E. M., Zangen, A., Ziemann, U., & Hallett, M. (2020). Safety and recommendations for TMS use in healthy subjects and patient populations, with updates on training, ethical and regulatory issues: Expert guidelines. Clinical Neurophysiology, PDF

Esmaeilpour, Z., Kronberg, G., Reato, D., Parra, L.C., & Bikson, M. (2020). Temporal interference stimulation targets deep brain regions by modulating neural oscillations. Brain Stimulation, 11(7) PDF

Vaclavik, D., Bechor, M., Foster, A., Gralnik, L.M., Bar-Haim, Y., Pine, D.S., Bikson, M., Silverman, W.K., Reeb-Sutherland, B.C., & Pettit, J.W. (2020). Case series of transcranial direct current stimulation as an augmentation strategy for attention bias modification training in adolescents with anxiety disorders. Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 9(3), 105-126 PDF

Xia, Y., Khalid, W., Yin, Z., Huang, G., Bikson, M., & Fu, B.M. (2020). Modulation of solute diffusivity in brain tissue as a novel mechanism of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Scientific Reports, 10, 18488 PDF

Truong, D.Q., Khadka, N., & Bikson, M. (2020). Transcranial Electrical Stimulation. In: He B. (eds) Neural Engineering. Springer Cham. PDF

Bremner, J.D., Gurel, N. Z., Wittbrodt, M.T., Shandhi, M.H., Rapaport, M.H., Nye, J.A., Pearce, B.D., Vaccarino, V., Shah, A.J., Park, J., Bikson, M., & Inan, O.T. (2020). Application of noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation to stress-related psychiatric disorders. Journal of Personalized Medicine, 10(3), 1-25. PDF

Jiang, J., Truong, D. Q., Esmaeilpour, Z., Huang, Y., Badran, B. W., & Bikson, M. (2020). Enhanced tES and tDCS computational models by meninges emulation. Journal of Neural Engineering, 17(1) Full PubMED Article PDF

Rajji, T. K., Bowie, C. R., Herrmann, N., Pollock, B. G., Bikson, M., Blumberger, D. M., Butters, M. A., Daskalakis, Z. J., Fischer, C. E., Flint, A. J., Golas, A. C., Graff-Guerrero, A., Kumar, S., Lourenco, L., Mah, L., Ovaysikia, S., Thorpe, K. E., Voineskos, A. N., & Mulsant, B. H. (2020). Design and rationale of the PACt-MD randomized clinical trial: Prevention of alzheimer’s dementia with cognitive remediation plus transcranial direct current stimulation in mild cognitive impairment and depression. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 76(2), 733-751.

Fregni, F., El-Hagrassy, M. M., Pacheco-Barrios, K., Carvalho, S., Leite, J., Simis, M., Brunelin, J., Nakamura-Palacios, E. M., Marangolo, P., Venkatasubramanian, G., San-Juan, D., Caumo, W., Bikson, M., Brunoni, A. R., & Neuromodulation Center Working Group (2020). Evidence-based guidelines and secondary meta-analysis for the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(4), 256–313. PDF

Adusumilli, P. S., Bikson, M., Rizk, N. P., Rusch, V. W., Hristov, B., Grosser, R., Tan, K. S., Sarkaria, I. S., Huang, J., Molena, D., Jones, D. R., & Bains, M. S. (2020). A prospective trial of intraoperative tissue oxygenation measurement and its association with anastomotic leak rate after Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 12(4), 1449-1459. PDF

Bikson, M., Hanlon, C. A., Woods, A. J., Gillick, B. T., Charvet, L., Lamm, C., Madeo, G., Holczer, A., Almeida, J., Antal, A., Ay, M. R., Baeken, C., Blumberger, D. M., Campanella, S., Camprodon, J. A., Christiansen, Loo, C., Crinion, J. T., Fitzgerald, P., Gallimberti, L., Ghobadi-Azbari, P., Ghodratitoostani, I., Grabner, R. H., Hartwigsen, G., Hirata, A., Kirton, A., Knotkova, H., Kruptisky, E., Marangolo, P., Nakamura-Palacios, E. M., Potok, W., Praharaj, S. K., Ruff, C. C., Schlaug, G., Siebner, H. R., Stagg, C. J., Thielscher, A., Wenderoth, N., Yuan, T.-F., Zhang, X., & Ekhtiari, H. (2020). Guidelines for TMS/tES clinical services and research through the COVID-19 pandemic. Brain Stimulation, 13(4), 1124-1149. online PDF

Caulfield, K. A., Badran, B. W., Li, X., Bikson, M., & George, M. S. (2020). Can transcranial electrical stimulation motor threshold estimate individualized tDCS doses over the prefrontal cortex? Evidence from reverse-calculation electric field modeling. Brain Stimulation, 13(4), 1150-1152. PDF

Caulfield, K. A., Badran, B. W., DeVries, W. H., Summers, P. M., Kofmehl, E., Li, X., Borckardt, J. J., Bikson, M., & George, M. S. (2020). Transcranial electrical stimulation motor threshold can estimate individualized tDCS dosage from reverse-calculation electric-field modeling. Brain Stimulation, 13(4), 961-969. PDF

Jog, M., Jann, K., Yan, L., Huang, Y., Parra, L., Narr, K., Bikson, M., & Wang, D. J. J. (2020). Concurrent imaging of markers of current flow and neurophysiological changes during tDCS. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14 PDF

Charvet, L. E., Shaw, M. T., Bikson, M., Woods, A. J., & Knotkova, H. (2020). Supervised transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) at home: A guide for clinical research and practice. Brain Stimulation, 13(3), 686-693. PDF

Khadka, N., Liu, X., Zander, H., Swami, J., Rogers, E., Lempka, S. F., & Bikson, M. (2020). Realistic anatomically detailed open-source spinal cord stimulation (RADO-SCS) model. Journal of Neural Engineering, 17(2) PDF

Adair, D., Truong, D., Esmaeilpour, Z., Gebodh, N., Borges, H., Ho, L., Bremner, J. D., Badran, B. W., Napadow, V., Clark, V. P., & Bikson, M. (2020). Electrical stimulation of cranial nerves in cognition and disease. Brain Stimulation, 13(3), 717-750. PDF

Cook, D. N., Thompson, S., Stomberg-Firestein, S., Bikson, M., George, M. S., Jenkins, D. D., & Badran, B. W. (2020). Design and validation of a closed-loop, motor-activated auricular vagus nerve stimulation (MAAVNS) system for neurorehabilitation. Brain Stimulation, 13(3), 800-803. PDF

Badran, B. W., Jenkins, D. D., Cook, D., Thompson, S., Dancy, M., DeVries, W. H., Mappin, G., Summers, P., Bikson, M., & George, M. S. (2020). Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation-paired rehabilitation for oromotor feeding problems in newborns: An open-label pilot study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14 PDF

Unal, G., Ficek, B., Webster, K., Shahabuddin, S., Truong, D., Hampstead, B., Bikson, M., & Tsapkini, K. (2020). Impact of brain atrophy on tDCS and HD-tDCS current flow: a modeling study in three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Neurological sciences: official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology41(7), 1781–1789. PDF

Khadka, N., Harmsen, I. E., Lozano, A. M., & Bikson, M. (2020). Bio-heat model of kilohertz-frequency deep brain stimulation increases brain tissue temperature. Neuromodulation, 23(4), 489-495. PDF

Shin, D. W., Fan, J., Luu, E., Khalid, W., Xia, Y., Khadka, N., Bikson, M., & Fu, B. M. (2020). In vivo modulation of the Blood–Brain barrier permeability by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(4), 1256-1270. PDF

Kronberg, G., Rahman, A., Sharma, M., Bikson, M., & Parra, L. C. (2020). Direct current stimulation boosts hebbian plasticity in vitro. Brain Stimulation, 13(2), 287-301. PDF

Lazarev, V. V., Gebodh, N., Tamborino, T., Bikson, M., & Caparelli-Daquer, E. M. (2020). Experimental-design specific changes in spontaneous EEG and during intermittent photic stimulation by high definition transcranial direct current stimulation. Neuroscience, 426, 50-58. PDF

Bikson, M., & Dmochowski, J. (2020). What it means to go deep with non-invasive brain stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, 131(3), 752-754. PDF

Esmaeilpour, Z., Shereen, A. D., Ghobadi-Azbari, P., Datta, A., Woods, A. J., Ironside, M., O’Shea, J., Kirk, U., Bikson, M., & Ekhtiari, H. (2020). Methodology for tDCS integration with fMRI. Human Brain Mapping, 41(7), 1950-1967. PDF

Koganemaru, S., Mikami, Y., Matsuhashi, M., Truong, D. Q., Bikson, M., Kansaku, K., & Mima, T. (2020). Cerebellar transcranial alternating current stimulation modulates human gait rhythm. Neuroscience Research, 156, 265-270. PDF

Khadka, N., Borges, H., Paneri, B., Kaufman, T., Nassis, E., Zannou, A. L., Shin, Y., Choi, H., Kim, S., Lee, K., & Bikson, M. (2020). Adaptive current tDCS up to 4 mA. Brain Stimulation, 13(1), 69-79. PDF


Borges, H., Dufau, A., Paneri, B., Woods, A. J., Knotkova, H., & Bikson, M. (2019). Updated technique for reliable, easy, and tolerated transcranial electrical stimulation including transcranial direct current stimulation. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 2020(155) PDF

Khadka, N., & Bikson, M. (2019). Response to the letter to the editor by caraway et al. on “Tissue temperature increases by a 10 kHz spinal cord stimulation system: Phantom and bioheat model”. Neuromodulation, 22(8), 988. PDF

Sivaramakrishnan, A., Datta, A., Bikson, M., & Madhavan, S. (2019). Remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation: A feasibility study for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NeuroRehabilitation, 45(3), 369-378.

Morya, E., Monte-Silva, K., Bikson, M., Esmaeilpour, Z., Biazoli, C. E., Jr., Fonseca, A., Bocci, T., Farzan, F., Chatterjee, R., Hausdorff, J. M., Machado, D. G. da S., Brunoni, A. R., Mexger, E., Moscaleski, L. A., Pegado, R., Sato, J. R., Caetano, M. S., Sá, K. N., Tanaka, C., Li, L. M., Baptiste, A. F., & Okano, A. H. (2019). Beyond the target area: An integrative view of tDCS-induced motor cortex modulation in patients and athletes. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 16(1) PDF

Argyelan, M., Oltedal, L., Deng, Z. -., Wade, B., Bikson, M., Joanlanne, A., Sanghani, S., Bartsch, H., Cano, M., Dale, A. M., Dannlowski, U., Dols, A., Enneking, V., Espinoza, R., Kessler, U., Narr, K. L., Oedegaard, K. L., Oudega, M. L., Redlich, R., Stek, M. L., Takamiya, A., Emsell, L., Bouckaert, F., Sienaert, P., Pujol, J., Indira, Tendolkar, I., van Eijndhoven, P., Petrides, G., Malhotra, A. K., & Abbott, C. (2019). Electric field causes volumetric changes in the human brain. ELife, 8 Available from: PDF

Khadka, N., Truong, D. Q., Williams, P., Martin, J. H., & Bikson, M. (2019). The quasi-uniform assumption for spinal cord stimulation translational research. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 328 PDF

Hosseini, M. B., Hou, J., Bikson, M., Iacoboni, M., Gornbein, J., & Saver, J. L. (2019). Central nervous system electrical stimulation for neuroprotection in acute cerebral ischemia meta-analysis of preclinical studies. Stroke, 50(10), 2892-2901. PDF

Bikson, M., Esmaeilpour, Z., Adair, D., Kronberg, G., Tyler, W. J., Antal, A., Datta, A., Sabel, B. A., Nitsche, M. A., Loo, C., Edwards, D., Ekhtiari, H., Knotkova, H., Woods, A. J., Hampstead, B. M., Badran, B. W., & Peterchev, A. V. (2019). Transcranial electrical stimulation nomenclature. Brain Stimulation, 12(6), 1349-1366. PDF

Seibt, O., Truong, D., Khadka, N., Huang, Y., Bikson, M. (2019) Computational Finite Element Method (FEM) forward modeling workflow for transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) current flow on MRI-derived head: Simpleware and COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial. bioRxiv, 704940. PDF

Valero-Cabré, A., Sanches, C., Godard, J., Fracchia, O., Dubois, B., Levy, R., Truong, D. Q., Bikson, M., & Teichmann, M. (2019). Language boosting by transcranial stimulation in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology, 93(6), E537-E547. PDF

Ekhtiari, H., Tavakoli, H., Addolorato, G., Baeken, C., Bonci, A., Campanella, S., Castelo-Branco, L., Challet-Bouju, G., Clark, V. P., Claus, E., Dannon, P. N., Felice, A. D., den Uyl, T., Diana, M., di Giannantonio, M., Fedota, J. R., Fitzgerald, P., Gallimberti, L., Grall-Bronnec, M., Herremans, S. C., Herrmann, M. J., Jamil, A., Khedr, E., Kouimtsidis, C., Kozak, K., Krupitsky, E., Lamm, C., Lechner, W. V., Madeo, G., Malmir, N., Martinotti, G., McDonald, W. M., Montemitro, C., Nakamura-Palacios, E. M., Nasehi, M., Nöel, X., Nosratabadi, M., Paulus, M., Pettorusso, M., Pradhan, B., Praharaj, S. K., Rafferty, H., Sahlem, G., jo Salmeron, B., Sauvaget, A., Schluter, R. S., Sergiou, C., Shahbabaie, A., Sheffer, C., Spagnolo, P. A., Steele, V. R., Yuan, T.-F., van Dongen, J. D. M., Waes, V. V., Venkatasubramanian, G., Verdejo-García, A., Verveer, I., Welsh, J. W., Wesley, M. J., Witkiewitz, K., Yavari, F., Zarrindast, M.-R., Zawertailo, L., Zhang, X., Cha, Y.-H., George, T. P., Frohlich, F., Goudriaan, A. E., Fecteau, S., Daughters, S. B., Stein, E. A., Fregni, F., Nitsche, M. A., Zangen, A., Bikson, M., & Hanlon, C. A. (2019). Transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation (tES and TMS) for addiction medicine: A consensus paper on the present state of the science and the road ahead. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 104, 118-140. PDF

Im, J. J., Jeong, H., Bikson, M., Woods, A. J., Unal, G., Oh, J. K., Na, S., Park, J.-S., Knotkova, H., Song, I.-U., & Chung, Y. -. (2019). Effects of 6-month at-home transcranial direct current stimulation on cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism in alzheimer’s disease. Brain Stimulation, 12(5), 1222-1228. PDF

Meiron, O., Gale, R., Namestnic, J., Bennet-Back, O., Gebodh, N., Esmaeilpour, Z., Mandzhiyev, V., & Bikson, M. (2019). Antiepileptic effects of a novel noninvasive neuromodulation treatment in a subject with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy: Case report with 20 sessions of HDTDCS intervention. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13(MAY) PDF

Ambrose-Zaken, G. V., FallahRad, M., Bernstein, H., Wall Emerson, R., & Bikson, M. (2019). Wearable cane and app system for improving mobility in Toddlers/Pre-schoolers with visual impairment. Frontiers in Education, 4 PDF

Zannou, A. L., Khadka, N., FallahRad, M., Truong, D. Q., Kopell, B. H., & Bikson, M. (2019). Tissue temperature increases by a 10 kHz spinal cord stimulation system: Phantom and bioheat model. Neuromodulation, PDF

Huang, Y., Datta, A., Bikson, M., & Parra, L. C. (2019). Realistic volumetric-approach to simulate transcranial electric stimulation – ROAST – a fully automated open-source pipeline. Journal of Neural Engineering, 16(5) PDF Support and Documentation here

FallahRad, M., Zannou, A. L., Khadka, N., Prescott, S. A., Ratté, S., Zhang, T., Esteller, R., Hershey, B., & Bikson, M. (2019). Electrophysiology equipment for reliable study of kHz electrical stimulation. Journal of Physiology, 597(8), 2131-2137. PDF

Lattari, E., Vieira, L. A. F., Oliveira, B. R. R., Unal, G., Bikson, M., De Mello Pedreiro, R. C., Neto, S. R. M., Machado, S., & Maranhaõ-Neto, G. A. (2019). Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation with caffeine intake on muscular strength and perceived exertion. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33(5), 1237-1243. PDF

Hadar, R., Winter, R., Edemann-Callesen, H., Wieske, F., Habelt, B., Khadka, N., Felgel-Farnholz, V., Barroeta-Hlusicka, E., Reis, J., Tatarau, C. A., Funke, K., Fritsch, B., Bernhardt, N., Bikson, M., Nitsche, M. A., Winter, C. (2020). Prevention of schizophrenia deficits via non-invasive adolescent frontal cortex stimulation in rats. Molecular Psychiatry, 25(4), 896-905. PDF

Khadka, N., Woods, A. J., & Bikson, M. (2019) Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Electrodes. In: Knotkova H., Nitsche M., Bikson M., Woods A. (eds) Practical Guide to Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Springer, Cham. PDF

Fonteneau, C., Mondino, M., Arns, M., Baeken, C., Bikson, M., Brunoni, A. R., Burke, M. J., Neuvonen, T., Padberg, F., Pascual-Leone, A., Poulet, E., Ruffini, G., Santarnecchi, E., Sauvaget, A., Schellhorn, K., Suaud-Chagny, M.-F., Palm, U., & Brunelin, J. (2019). Sham tDCS: A hidden source of variability? reflections for further blinded, controlled trials. Brain Stimulation, 12(3), 668-673. PDF

Knotkova, H., Riggs, A., Berisha, D., Borges, H., Bernstein, H., Patel, V., Truong, D. Q., Unal, G., Arce, D., Datta, A., & Bikson, M. (2019). Automatic M1-SO montage headgear for transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) suitable for home and high-throughput in-clinic applications. Neuromodulation, 22(8), 904-910. PDF

Zannou, A. L., Khadka, N., Truong, D. Q., Zhang, T., Esteller, R., Hershey, B., & Bikson, M. (2019). Temperature increases by kilohertz frequency spinal cord stimulation. Brain Stimulation, 12(1), 62-72. PDF

Gebodh, N., Esmaeilpour, Z., Adair, D., Chelette, K., Dmochowski, J., Woods, A. J., Kappenman, E. S., Parra, L. C., & Bikson, M. (2019). Inherent physiological artifacts in EEG during tDCS. NeuroImage, 185, 408-424. PDF

Badran, B. W., Yu, A. B., Adair, D., Mappin, G., DeVries, W. H., Jenkins, D. D., & George, M. S. (2019). Laboratory administration of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS): Technique, targeting, and considerations. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 2019(143) PDF


Machado, D. G. da S., Unal, G., Andrade S. M., Moreira, A., Altimari, L. R., Brunoni, A. R., Perrey, S., Mauger, A. R., Bikson, M., & Okano, A. H. (2018). Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on exercise performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Stimulation. 12(3), 593–605. PDF

Dobbs, B., Pawlak, N., Biagioni, M., Agarwal, S., Shaw, M., Pilloni, G., Bikson, M., Datta, A., & Charvet, L. (2018). Generalizing remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): Feasibility and benefit in parkinson’s disease. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 15(1) PDF

Marron, E. M., Viejo-Sobera, R., Cuatrecasas, G., Redolar-Ripoll, D., Lorda, P. G., Datta, A., Bikson, M., Magerowski, G., & Alonso-Alonso, M. (2019). Prefronto-cerebellar neuromodulation affects appetite in obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 43(10), 2119-2124. PDF

Lee, S. H., Im, J. J., Oh, J. K., Choi, E. K., Yoon, S., Bikson, M., Song, I.-U., Jeong, H., & Chung, Y. -. (2018). Transcranial direct current stimulation for online gamers: A prospective single-arm feasibility study. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(4), 1166-1170. PDF

Silva-Filho, E., Okano, A. H., Morya, E., Albuquerque, J., Cacho, E., Unal, G., Bikson, M., & Pegado, R. (2018). Neuromodulation treats chikungunya arthralgia: A randomized controlled trial. Scientific Reports, 8(1) PDF

Santos, T. E. G., Favoretto, D. B., Toostani, I. G., Nascimento, D. C., Rimoli, B. P., Bergonzoni, E., Lemos, T. W., Truong, D. Q., Delbem, A. C. B., Makkiabadi, B., Moraes, R., Louzada F., Bikson, M., Leite, J. P., & Edwards, D. J. (2018). Manipulation of human verticality using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation. Frontiers in Neurology, 9(OCT) PDF

Truong, D. Q., & Bikson, M. (2018). Physics of transcranial direct current stimulation devices and their history. Journal of ECT, 34(3), 137-143. PDF

Khadka, N., Borges, H., Zannou, A. L., Jang, J., Kim, B., Lee, K., & Bikson, M. (2018). Dry tDCS: Tolerability of a novel multilayer hydrogel composite non-adhesive electrode for transcranial direct current stimulation. Brain Stimulation, 11(5), 1044-1053. PDF

Badran, B. W., Jenkins, D. D., DeVries, W. H., Dancy, M., Summers, P. M., Mappin, G. M., Bernstein, H., Bikson, M., Coker-Bolt, P., & George, M. S. (2018). Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) for improving oromotor function in newborns. Brain Stimulation, 11(5), 1198-1200. PDF

Cancel, L. M., Arias, K., Bikson, M., & Tarbell, J. M. (2018). Direct current stimulation of endothelial monolayers induces a transient and reversible increase in transport due to the electroosmotic effect. Scientific Reports, 8(1) PDF

Badran, B. W., Brown, J. C., Dowdle, L. T., Mithoefer, O. J., LaBate, N. T., Coatsworth, J., DeVries, W. H., Austelle, C. W., McTeague, L. M., Yu, A., Bikson, M., Jenkins, D. D., & George, M. S. (2018). Tragus or cymba conchae? investigating the anatomical foundation of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS). Brain Stimulation, 11(4), 947-948. PDF

Huh, Y., Jung, D., Seo, T., Sun, S., Kim, S. H., Rhim, H., Chung, S., Kim, C.-H., Kwon, Y., Bikson, M., Chung, Y.-, Kim, J. J., & Cho, J. (2018). Brain stimulation patterns emulating endogenous thalamocortical input to parvalbumin-expressing interneurons reduce nociception in mice. Brain Stimulation, 11(5), 1151-1160. PDF

Reckow, J., Rahman-Filipiak, A., Garcia, S., Schlaefflin, S., Calhoun, O., DaSilva, A. F., Bikson, M., & Hampstead, B. M. (2018). Tolerability and blinding of 4×1 high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) at two and three milliamps. Brain Stimulation, 11(5), 991-997. PDF

Riggs, A., Patel, V., Paneri, B., Portenoy, R. K., Bikson, M., & Knotkova, H. (2018). At-home transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with telehealth support for symptom control in chronically-ill patients with multiple symptoms. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12 PDF

Chhatbar, P. Y., Kautz, S. A., Takacs, I., Rowland, N. C., Revuelta, G. J., George, M. S., Bikson, M., & Feng, W. (2018). Evidence of transcranial direct current stimulation-generated electric fields at subthalamic level in human brain in vivo. Brain Stimulation, 11(4), 727-733. PDF

Bikson, M., Ruiz-Nuño, A., Miranda, D., Kronberg, G., Jiruska, P., Fox, J. E., & Jefferys, J. G. (2018). Synaptic transmission modulates while non-synaptic processes govern the transition from pre-ictal to seizure activity in vitro. bioRxiv, 280321. PDF

Lee, W. H., Kennedy, N. I., Bikson, M., & Frangou, S. (2018). A computational assessment of target engagement in the treatment of auditory hallucinations with transcranial direct current stimulation. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9(FEB) PDF

Edemann-Callesen, H., Habelt, B., Wieske, F., Jackson, M., Khadka, N., Mattei, D., Bernhardt, N., Heinz, A., Liebantz, D., Bikson, M., Padberg, F., Hadar, Ravit, H., Nitsche, M. A., & Winter, C. (2018). Non-invasive modulation reduces repetitive behavior in a rat model through the sensorimotor cortico-striatal circuit. Translational Psychiatry, 8(1) PDF

Bikson, M., Paneri, B., Mourdoukoutas, A., Esmaeilpour, Z., Badran, B. W., Azzam, R., Adair, D., Datta, A., Fang, X. H., Wingeier, B., Chao, D., Alonso-Alonso, M., Lee, K., Knotkova, H., Woods, A. J., Hagedorn, D., Jeffery, D., Giordano, J., & Tyler, W. J. (2018). Limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (LOTES-2017): Engineering principles, regulatory statutes, and industry standards for wellness, over-the-counter, or prescription devices with low risk. Brain Stimulation, 11(1), 134-157. PDF

Khadka, N., Zannou, A. L., Zunara, F., Truong, D. Q., Dmochowski, J., & Bikson, M. (2018). Minimal heating at the skin surface during transcranial direct current stimulation. Neuromodulation, 21(4), 334-339. PDF

Charvet, L., Shaw, M., Dobbs, B., Frontario, A., Sherman, K., Bikson, M., Datta, A., Krupp, L., Zeinapour, E., & Kasschau, M. (2018). Remotely Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases the Benefit of At-Home Cognitive Training in Multiple Sclerosis. Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society21(4), 383–389. PDF

Dmochowski, J. P., Ki, J. J., DeGuzman, P., Sajda, P., & Parra, L. C. (2018). Extracting multidimensional stimulus-response correlations using hybrid encoding-decoding of neural activity. NeuroImage, 180, 134-146. PDF

Charvet, L. E., Dobbs, B., Shaw, M. T., Bikson, M., Datta, A., & Krupp, L. B. (2018). Remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: Results from a randomized, sham-controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 24(13), 1760-1769. PDF

Mourdoukoutas, A. P., Truong, D. Q., Adair, D. K., Simon, B. J., & Bikson, M. (2018). High-resolution multi-scale computational model for non-invasive cervical vagus nerve stimulation. Neuromodulation, 21(3), 261-268. PDF

Bikson, M., Brunoni, A. R., Charvet, L. E., Clark, V. P., Cohen, L. G., Deng, Z.-D., Dmochowski, J., Edwards, D. J., Frohlich, F., Kappenman, E. S., Lim, K. O., Loo, C., Mantovani, A., McMullen, D. P., Parra, L. C., Pearson, M., Richardson, J. D., Rumsey, J. M., Sehatpour, P., Sommers, D., Unal, G., Wassermann, E. M., Woods, A. J., & Lisanby, S. H. (2018). Rigor and reproducibility in research with transcranial electrical stimulation: An NIMH-sponsored workshop. Brain Stimulation, 11(3), 465-480. PDF

Leite, J., Gonçalves, Ó. F., Pereira, P., Khadka, N., Bikson, M., Fregni, F., & Carvalho, S. (2018). The differential effects of unihemispheric and bihemispheric tDCS over the inferior frontal gyrus on proactive control. Neuroscience Research, 130, 39-46. PDF